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News » The optic nerve: the main theme of our vision

The optic nerve: the main theme of our vision

The optic nerve is part of the central nervous system and is, specifically, one of the twelve cranial nerves. Enveloped by the meninges that protect the entire brain, it is to extend the nerve endings of the photoreceptors of the retina and is, in particular, a deputy to the transformation of images into electrical impulses.
We can therefore compare the optic nerve to a kind of electric cable formed by a series of wires, protected by a sheath (myelin). The path of the optic nerve starts in the eyeball, suddenly defined intrabulbare portion, to continue into the orbit, to arrive in the optic chiasm, intracranial portion.

Malfunction of the optic nerve and related conditions
The disorders of the optic nerve are numerous and should be treated with remarkable promptness. Generally, they should be divided into congenital and acquired.
Various are the causes which it is based, among them is possible to include, certain infectious diseases, metabolic, toxic, effect of diseases that damage the outer coating of nerves (demyelinating), attributable, in some cases, the use of certain of drugs.
Inflammation of the optic nerve should be divided into anterior or retrobulbar optic neuritis.
The latter, which are often in adults effect of multiple sclerosis, may also be due to metabolic causes such as tobacco or alcohol intoxication.
The front optic neuropathies can be the source or non-arteritic arteritic form.
Papilledema consists of a disease whose symptoms are given excessive swelling of the optic nerves occasioned by increased pressure within the brain.
Glaucoma, however, one of the disorders of the optic nerve unfortunately most common, is caused by a sharp increase in eye pressure.
The outflow of aqueous humor in the eye, in this case, is hindered, therefore the liquid, accumulating, causes a progressive rise in eye pressure that with time produces compression and / or crushing the optic nerve.
Such injuries result in visual field defects, with adjacent progressive narrowing of the same until its possible disappearance.

The alarm bells should not be underestimated
On the occasion of an alteration of the optic nerve they are generally exhibit the signs of dysfunction that allow you to become aware of the possible presence of a pathology of the right eye. The color vision, for example, appears altered, especially with regard to the red, the green and the combination of these.
It is not the case that one of the tests to which it is subjected in these cases consists precisely observing an object of red color with one eye at a time to compare the perception of color.
Another symptomatic alarm bell is the reduction of visual acuity, as well as alteration of the pupillary reflex, that is consistent in a decreased ability of the pupil to react to light contracting. A suffering of the optic nerve can produce an alteration in sensitivity to contrasts of light or the light itself.
In any case, there are many defects related to the field of vision disorders of the optic nerve, which can occur with less obvious symptoms, often also typical of many other diseases.

Only a careful examination of the visual field allows you to locate the exact alterations of the optic nerve. That\'s why it is important to undergo regular check-ups as a preventive measure, especially for those over 40, because, as is evident, the symptoms are not particularly significant or unique and exclusive in every case, with the result that a pathology of the nerve optical, for the effect, can latently advance.
NOTE: this article has been translated with Google Translator. If some of the sentences do not make much sense, please be patient and ..use your imagination. Thanks.

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