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News » Cornea: the natural external barrier for our eyes protection

Cornea: the natural external barrier for our eyes protection

With a thickness of just over half a millimeter, the cornea is the transparent tissue Member of the lining of the anterior surface.
We can define it just as the outer barrier of the eyeball, composed of five layers: corneal epithelium, the Bowaman membrane, stroma, Descemet\'s membrane and endothelium.
The cornea allows light rays to enter the eye by making them converge on the retina immediately after passing through the lens.
Precisely to allow this step, the cornea is transparent physiologically, vascular and speculate. Completely devoid of blood vessels, is nourished in the inner part dall\'umor water of the anterior chamber and the outside of the vascular loops of the limbus.
When the cornea is damaged due to trauma, disease or infection, tends to lose transparency, with the result that the view is compromised in some way, the images look less crisp and the effects can be, in any case, significantly more serious.
E \'therefore necessary to take timely action to avert such risks and in certain circumstances - which, in any case are chosen as a last resort - may prove unavoidable partial or total corneal transplantation.

The most frequent injuries
Among the traumas that, most often, can affect the cornea there is a corneal abrasion.
This is a kind of excoriation of a part of the cornea, with partial loss of the surface tissue, generally caused by foreign bodies, breakage of contact or exposure to ultraviolet rays lenses made without appropriate precautions.
If the lesions are not particularly deep they tend to heal within 48 hours with the instillation of antibiotic ointments and bandages, otherwise, you must opt for the administration of penetrating agents and, in some cases, it is right to intervene surgically.
When use of contact lenses, following the intervention, it was not until the recovery of the layers of the eye surface before agreeing to wear them again.
Prevent injuries in the head to the cornea, however, it is possible: simply, the purpose, use protective glasses at the place of work at risk, as well as, in the sunniest hours of the day and in the case of artificial tanning treatments, protect the eyes with good lenses Sun.

The corneal diseases
The cornea is protected by the tear film, a thin layer of tears, as well as, more on the outside, from the eyelids. In addition to the trauma it is rendered vulnerable by the presence of infections and can be affected by certain diseases, some of which can also deform.
Are the same eyelids, sometimes, damage the cornea because, rather than spinning the outside, in some cases, fortunately rare, they tend to grow toward the corneal surface.
It is not uncommon in the case where they exist of bacterial infections, viral, fungal and protozoan, which are to be to generate scars that remain over time, both of small size (nubecola) that opacity deeper (leucoma), with an attached reduction of view, more or less severe. Very frequent are the corneal dystrophies, progressive disorder, often bilateral, non-inflammatory nature, that cause opacification of the fabric, as well as corneal ectasia, group of disorders characterized by an alteration of the curvature of the cornea, among them the pellucid marginal degeneration , keratoconus, the microcornea and megalocornea.

There are various medical scans that allow you to study the cornea, including the topography, the pachymetry, the endothelial count, OCT, confocal microscopy.
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