News » Glaucoma: causes, types and parameters to be checked for proper diagnosis
Glaucoma is the eye disease caused, in most cases, by an increase of the pressure inside the eye.
In Italy, data in hand, are about one million people who are affected, representing it for the effect, after cataract, a leading cause of visual impairment.
What is more serious is that, unfortunately, even 50% of them it is not aware, while, to avoid the consequences of glaucoma, such as blindness and low vision, it would be useful a diagnosis as early as appropriate.
Causes of glaucoma and most common types
The increased pressure in the eye, which is the basis of glaucoma, appears to be due to the failure of aqueous humor reabsorption: it is precisely this slowdown that, in the long run, should result in harm to the eyeball, in particular to the optic nerve, which It is located right in the central area of the retina.
The open-angle glaucoma is the most common form of glaucoma, so as to represent 80% of cases. It occurs, very often, following that meets an obstacle in the aqueous humor flow out mainly through the trabecular meshwork sclerocorneal.
The disease develops slowly, without apparent symptoms, occurring only when the damage to the optic nerve has come to an advanced stage by now.
That\'s why it is important to undergo regular eye checkups.
Acute angle-closure glaucoma is represented by an abnormal increase in intraocular pressure, which, in this case, takes place quickly because the iris suddenly closes the outlet and an angle occlusion iridocorneal.
This sudden increase in pressure, defined in medical terms, acute attack of glaucoma, is very serious and must be treated in time, since it can also lead to blindness in a short time.
This form of glaucoma affects about 10%, of which 70% are female.
Congenital glaucoma is, fortunately, very rare, affecting one baby every 10,000.
The child has excessive tearing and sensitivity to light.
Secondary glaucoma is the side effect of some diseases, such as diabetes, thrombosis, tumors and hemorrhages, or is derived from the use of particular drugs.
The parameters used to diagnose glaucoma
Preparing an early diagnosis of glaucoma, undergoing a complete eye examination, it is vital to the proper functioning of vision.
The following parameters are checked during the visits:
1. eye pressure (intraocular): by means of the tonometer evaluating the pressure within the eyeball identifying any increase;
2. Appearance of the optic nerve: using the ophthalmoscope the specialist checks any increase in papillary excavation;
3. computerized perimetry is a survey that measures the sensitivity in different areas of the retina. This exam measures the most effective therapy better than previous manual methods;
4. More new assessment methods of optical disc: thanks to technological development of evaluation methods were introduced in the optical disc, as the CSLO, the SLP, OCT. These instrumental examinations easy to use and non-invasive, allow the study of the optic disc and the measurement of the thickness of the nerve fibers around it. The information obtained by these instruments is considered complementary to other clinical assessments.
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