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News » Corneal blindness: causes and reparative treatments of more serious eye condition

Corneal blindness: causes and reparative treatments of more serious eye condition

The cornea or ocular surface present in front of the iris, can be subjected, in its transparency, severe changes as a result of serious diseases.
The latter, in serious cases, may even degenerate into corneal blindness.
In many cases, it is due to vascular leucomas, very often a result of disorders of traumatic origin, or it can be caused by burns often generated by chemical agents or, in other cases, may be a serious consequence of keratitis (or neurotrophic herpes).
If the countries in the developing corneal blindness is caused most often by vitamin A deficiency, or diseases such as trachoma and corneal ulcers septic, in our industrialized countries this is very often associated with autoimmune diseases such as severe cases of syndrome Dry eye, or pemphigoid Stevens-Johonson syndrome.

What treatments are used eg repairing corneal damage?
Damage to the cornea can be repaired by a cornea transplant or, in other circumstances, you can make use of treatments that are based on the use of stem cells.
Another extremely effective procedure consists in the attachment of an amniotic membrane.

When you are using the corneal transplant?
Corneal blindness can be prevented in some way, but, when the cornea is weakened too risking spontaneous rupture or drug therapies will no longer allow the healing, it has to resort to the cornea transplant.
The surgery, performed under general or local anesthesia, allows the replacement of the damaged tissue with a donor cornea. The new corneal flap allows the patient to recover the view is restored because the transparency of the cornea.
The surgery, in some circumstances, it is necessary in the following cases:
- When the ocular surface placed in front of the iris, as a result of severe infections, ulcerations presents deep;
- When there was a deep cut;
- In cases which had occurred caused caustic chemicals.
The corneal transplantation presents very high probability of success.
Complications, however, may not be unmentioned: they are diverse and range from the classic rejection, to traumatic consequences, until reaching to infections, refractive problems such as a strong astigmatism.
The corneal graft, in cases where the corneal blindness is at serious risk, may consist in the replacement of the entire thickness of the opaque portion, beyond that of only a few layers of it.
As much as possible, today we try to resort to partial corneal transplant for less invasive surgery and postoperative recovery of the increased speed.

What are stem corneal?
Today we hear much talk of stem cells, and rightly so, given the great achievements of science in this field, including in the area of corneal blindness.
The headquarters of corneal stem cells is the transition zone between the cornea and bulbar conjunctiva (corneal limbus). The corneal stem cells are used for the regeneration and proliferation of the same corneal epithelium.
In healthy individuals their presence allows to repair the corneal damage caused by traumatic phenomena, inflammatory and infectious mild to moderate intensity.
Unfortunately, some trauma or dates corneal diseases, causing an alteration of the stem resulting in a decrease in their number.
As a result of this deficiency, the cornea is no longer able to repair their surface epithelium, going meeting to complications, unfortunately, serious.
Here, in this case, one speaks of corneal blindness.
Performing limbal transplantation of stem may be returned, in some circumstances, the ability to regenerate corneal epithelium. Furthermore, the combination with other surgical procedures - such as corneal transplantation - allows even more to improve the visual condition, returning the initial transparency to the damaged cornea.

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