News » Retinal edema: types, causes and treatments to follow

Retinal edema: types, causes and treatments to follow

The retinal edema is manifested as a result of an improper fluid accumulation in the retina.
When it is not involved throughout the retina, in general, it is usual to make a distinction between macular edema, which always causes a decrease of the view in relation to the severity of the edema same, and peripheral edema, which may give rise to particular symptoms or cause phenomena of phosphenes or floaters.
We know together characteristics and symptoms related to two different types mentioned.

Retinal macular edema: nature, symptoms and treatment
Although, in some cases, the macular retinal edema can appear as an undesirable effect arising from surgery, often, this disease is a complication of other, including diabetic retinopathy and vascular occlusions etiniche.
• The diabetic macular edema (DME) is the most serious complication of diabetic retinopathy, eye a condition that tends, with some frequency, to develop in the years in people with diabetes mellitus. The DME is due to the accumulation of liquids in the macula (the most central part of the retina) that alters the structure and the functionality of the macula itself, thus generating a very important visual damage. Until recently, laser treatment has for years represented the only available treatment for DME.
Today, however, there are new treatments that allow you to control macular edema with intravitreal implant of cortisone drugs or slow-release intravitreal anti-VEGF drugs, repeated over time. To date, there is no treatment capable of defeating definitively this eye pathology.
Plays, therefore, a particular importance is the prevention of DME in diabetic patients. Such prevention must be exercised by monitoring blood glucose, hypertension, iperplidemia and, in general, all those of blood risk factors, in order to avoid or delay the onset of the most serious complications caused by diabetes can the eyes.
• The inflammatory macular edema is a form of retinal edema due to an inflammatory condition that involves the release of pro-inflammatory substances. These produce retinal capillary leakage, resulting in leakage of fluid and retinal thickening in cavities cistoidi (cystoid macular edema, EMC).
The main symptoms related to this pathology are represented by haze and visual decline, in particular to the detriment of central vision. You can rarely be associated floaters or photopsias.
• Retinal vascular occlusions are the most dangerous effects of retinal edema.
With central retinal artery occlusion is less blood flow in the macular region be stationed an ischemic edema that causes a drastic reduction of vision.
Drug treatment is based on anticoagulants, fibrinolytic, and acetazolamide.
• The Irvine-Gass syndrome causes a reduction of view, this typical symptom of retinal edema. It occurs after cataract surgery, with reasons to be related with the alteration of the blood-retinal barrier.
The most effective therapy, in any event, is that which is based on the administration of indomethacin.

Edema peripheral retinal: nature, symptoms and treatment
The peripheral retinal edema (swelling of Berlin) is the result of trauma - not penetrating - to the front of the eye. In the presence of this condition, the eye has a greyish white appearance of the retinal tissue due to the lack of oxygen that determines a malfunction of the whole retinal area involved.
In particular, the retinal photoreceptors tend to lose their functionality or provide answers altered as flashes of light. The treatment of this disease consists in the administration of steroidal drugs via systematic.

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