News » Pathogenesis and clinical diagnosis dell\'oncocerchiasi: what affects prevention?
The onchocerciasis (river blindness), also known as "river blindness," is among the most serious diseases as pertaining ever that can affect the eyes. It is caused by infection caused by a little worm Onchocerca volvulus, and unfortunately, if not treated in time, leads to blindness.
For it often is accompanied by inflammation inside the eye that generates damage to the retina due to scarring and to degeneration of the nervous tissue (atrophy).
The scientific research on onchocerciasis conclude that, after trachoma, it is the second leading cause of preventable blindness in the world due to infectious diseases.
Fortunately, thanks to the efforts made by science and research worldwide, the onchocerciasis seems to be in the process of gradual reduction.
They are mostly people over 40 years of age can be affected by this type of blindness in the world most affected areas. The Onchocerca volvulus is endemic in equatorial Africa and South America, especially along the major rivers, where there are the makers of onchocerciasis: brown flies. It is these that transmit the infection to humans through their bite.
E \'as a result of it the larvae penetrate the skin and in adult form, ripen in subcutaneous nodules that give life to inflammation.
The onchocerciasis is considered a real plague in several African countries, which affects more than 31 states. According to the most recent estimates conducted on the subject, it seems that about 25 million people are affected, of which nearly 300,000 people have become blind and other visually impaired would be 800,000.
The first, most obvious sign of onchocerciasis is a modest ocular inflammation in the front. It would be appropriate to intervene at this stage, because, with the passing of time, together with the persistent input of microfilariae in the eye, the intraocular inflammation progresses rapidly, and it is accompanied cicatrization phenomena.
With time, he begins to also be involved in the posterior segment of the eye that produces an inflammation of the choroid and retina, which can manifest itself in various ways.
Diagnosis and Treatment
The diagnosis of onchocerciasis can be performed at any stage of the disease, but, as explained, it is good to catch it early, because only in this way he can ward off the worst effects.
The onchocerciasis can be treated with an annual dose of ivermectin, a potent pesticide, as well as with the various programs put in place by the WHO.
Of extremely useful are the reclamation of unhealthy areas.
In fact, there is still no ideal drug that can be said to be perfect to cure the disease, therefore, the only way to combat it is to prevent it.
Science and medicine you are carrying very forward in their goal to eradicate once and for all this terrible disease: however, still much can and should be done, because the loss of vision is always unacceptable, but it is even more so when the because it is associated with an event apparently so trivial, which can be, in fact, the bite of a small insect.
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